Kashmir was permitted to Joy two special rights — a separate constitution and contention of Kashmir state subject laws. Though of these dispersions were granted taking into the unusual historical circumstances leading to the accession but it is this special status which has kept the accession on tenterhooks.
All other state completely merged their identity with the Indian Republic — surrendered their defense, foreign affairs, currency communication and every aspect of administration to Indian Republic, Kashmir stood apart. Pakistan has ever been trying to grab Kashmir as diplomatically geographically and strategically. Kashmir has its unique position. To have Kashmir is to have the overall control of the large Himalayan region, north of India.
Therefore it has been the effort of Pakistan ever since 1947 to get a foothold in Kashmir and then gradually grab the entire territory, while India has all along been maintaining that Kashmir has become an integral part of India after the accession.
At one point of time Pakistan forcibly and in total violation of international norms occupied a sizeable chunk of the State but the Indian forces repulsed this intrusion and pushed them back and in a way won back the entire area but then a ceasefire was declared mid way — a political decision was taken — and a part of that occupied area by Pakistan remained back with them and is still with them till today. They call it as Azad Kashmir.
Had the ceasefire not been declared, the entire area called as Azad Kashmir would have been merged with India, now this portion is constantly posing a threat to India and is providing a free passage for Pakistani intruders and infiltrators giving India a constant headache. The majority of population of this region is Muslims who render help, protection and even military” support to Pakistan.
Wars have been fought between Pakistan and India and then again in 1965 when India gave a crushing defeat to Pakistan but the hostilities continued in 1971 a third war was fought.
When there arose a civil war in Pakistan which had erupted between East and West Pakistan India played a decisive role in facilitating session of the Eastern part which became an independent State of Bangladesh. The Pakistan army and air force were severely crippled in this war.
In 1965 sharp fighting had broken out in the Rank of Kutch on the border between West Pakistan and India and later spread to Kashmir and to the Punjab. India charged that Pakistan infiltrators were invading Kashmir while Pakistan claimed that the invaders were Kashmiri freedom fighters.
India seized army posts on the Pakistan side of their common border in Kashmir. A fierce air as well as land fight went on when in September 1965; the United Nations intervened to bring about a ceasefire. Direct confrontation between the troops ended in 1966 shortly after an agreement between India and Pakistan had been reached at Tashkent, USSR, through Soviet Mediation.
It had been in January 1949 that on the intervention of the United Nations Commission a truce had been arranged, when fighting between Pakistan and India had gone on for two years.
By this truce Kashmir was divided along the ceasefire line, with India holding about two thirds and Pakistan, the remainder part of Kashmir. India referred the case to U.N. Security Council which has heard conflicting claims, time and again but could reach 0 no decision, while fighting between the two countries has gone on intermittently.
The Kargil misadventure on the part of Pakistan has yet been a very mischievous and betraying an act on the part of Pakistan. While the then Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee was conducting a good will and confidence boosting exercise on his part through an India Pakistan Bus Journey to Lahore on February 22, 1999 the Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, while showing an apparent reciprocation of the spirit of mutual confidence and good will, was having dubious and sinister designs in the Kargil region of Kashmir.
While the two Prime Ministers were hugging each other in a close cordial embrace at Lahore, the Pakistan army was advancing towards the Indian border in the cold Kargil region in the north of Kashmir to gain control of the strategic points. This could not have been possible without the tacit approval of the Pakistani Prime Minister. It was on the 6th of May, 1999 that some shepherds grazing their sheep noticed-movement of some uniformed soldiers moving in a suspicious manner armed with the most sophisticated weapons. These shepherds informed of this to the Indian posts.
The Indian posts during this period were manned only by a skeleton staff, but when the news reached them of these sinister activities on the other side, they at once informed their headquarters at Delhi and it was on 9th May 1999, that the army was put on alert.
By this time, the Pakistani intruders had taken control of some very strategically important points like the Tiger Hill from where they could strike as well as obstruct and even dismantle the Leh route. There, actually was a full scale military operation on the other side of the line of control which had remained undetected by the Indian intelligence agencies.
Later on when our soldiers, after fighting a gallant battle took control of this region, it was discovered that the Listen forces had built bunkers and filled them with rations and supplies to last them for more than six months.
It was really a heroic and the most gallant task of our soldiers and young officers that the Pakistani designs were frustrated. It was an uphill task to win back the occupied posts, a heroic effort in which more than 400 soldiers and officers lost their lives. They died that the country should live; their deeds shall ever keep them alive in the memory of the country.
Kargil afforded the opportunity for India to exhibit and demonstrate their unique solidarity in this hour of crisis the whole nation rose up as one — that has been the lesson learnt. The Great Betrayal on the part of Pakistan brought about the Great Solidarity in India. That has been a great achievement indeed — really a historic one.