552 Word Essay about the American Revolution from 1775 AD to 1783 AD

In respect of all local matters, the colonists governed themselves through elected representatives. They even levied local taxes.

They were, however, denied any say in matters concerning their trade with other European countries, economic development, levying of extra taxes and even westward expansion. Britain controlled these matters strictly.

Increase in Taxes in the Colonies:

In Europe, the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763), in which Britain and France were on opposite sides, ended with the Treaty of Paris (1763). The treaty forced France to withdraw from North America and India. Britain sought to recover its war expenses by increasing taxes in its North American colonies.

In 1765, Britain passed the Stamp Act, which increased duties on all legal and commercial transactions. The colonists demanded representation in the British Parliament before any tax could be imposed on them. They coined the slogan “No taxation without representation”. Violent uprisings by the colonists forced Britain to withdraw the Stamp Act.

In 1767, Britain imposed new taxes on consumer goods like tea, paper, glass and paint, which were imported into the colonies. The colonists rose in rebellion, and once again all the taxes were withdrawn, except the one on tea.

In 1773, the colonists refused to unload tea brought by British ships. At Boston, when the governor ordered three ships to be unloaded, a group of colonists disguised as American Indians boarded the ships and threw the crates of tea into the sea. This incident, known as the Boston Tea Party, sparked off the American Revolution.

Declaration of Independence:

In 1774, the representatives of the colonists met, and appealed to the king of England to redress their grievances. However, in April 1775, fighting broke out between the British troops and the colonists. George Washington was appointed the commander of the American forces.

In August 1775, Britain declared a state of rebellion in America. On 4 July 1776, at a congress (meeting) in Philadelphia, the settlers of the 13 colonies adopted the Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson. The Declaration stated that all men are born equal and cannot be denied the rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. It also asserted people’s right to form their own government.

In 1778, France joined the colonists in their struggle against Britain, and later, Spain and the Netherlands followed. Thus, the war became international. In 1781, the British surrendered.

In 1783, Britain signed three separate treaties with the colonists, with France and with Spain. By the Treaty of Paris, Britain recognised the independence of its 13 rebellious colonies, which later formed the USA.

In 1789, the national government of the USA adopted a republican constitution to which the Bill of Rights was added. It assured the citizens of the USA of justice under the law, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom of the press.

363 Word Essay for School Students about the Unification of Germany

Before long, all the states except Austria had joined the union under Prussia’s leadership. In the long run, economic unity and prosperity promoted the urge to form a political union and led to the birth of Germany as a nation.

Frankfurt Assembly In 1848, revolutionary movements forced German rulers to introduce democratic reforms. The Frankfurt Assembly was set up to frame a constitution for a united Germany excluding Austria.

It decided that Germany would come under a constitutional monarchy with the Prussian ruler Frederick William IV as the emperor. However, the Prussian ruler refused to tolerate the checks on his powers, and disapproved of any military confrontation with Austria. The movement for constitutional monarchy, thus, failed.

Bismarck’s role in 1861, William I succeeded Frederick William IV to the throne of Prussia. He appointed Otto von Bismarck, a Prussian aristocrat, as his prime minister. Bismarck wanted to create a militaristic empire under the Prussian monarch. He used methods of force, or the policy of ‘blood and iron’.

With Austria’s help, Bismarck acquired territories from Denmark. Then, in alliance with Italy, he defeated Austria in 1866. The German Confederation was dissolved, and Bismarck united 22 states to form the North German Confederation led by Prussia.

The southern German states were a bone of contention between France and the North German Confederation. Bismarck realised that only a war could settle the matter. In 1870, he entered into a war against France and ultimately emerged victorious.

During the course of the war, the southern German states were absorbed into a united Germany, with King William I of Prussia as its emperor. By the end of the nineteenth century, Germany emerged as a strong industrialised nation.

4 Important Impact of British Rule in India

The mechanised industries needed a continuous supply of raw materials. They also needed markets for the manufactured goods. To fulfil these needs, the countries with mechanised industries began to establish political control over regions around their trade settlements in other countries. These regions were called colonies.

India, thus, became a British colony. The British imposed heavy taxes on the Indians, exported raw materials from India to feed England’s industries and sold their cheap machine-made goods in Indian markets. Most of the money they earned in India and the goods they bought with such money were sent to England. Thus, India’s wealth was drained out.

Although British rule caused many hardships to the Indians, some of the British policies benefited the Indians in the long run. Let us see how British rule affected education, transport and communication, and social and cultural life in India.

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In the eighteenth century, elementary education in India was imparted in pathshalas for Hindus and maktabs for Muslims. Children were taught to read and write, memorise religious texts and do simple arithmetic. Tols and madarsas imparted higher education in Sanskrit and Persian respectively.

However, these institutions did not promote the spirit of enquiry. They made no effort to make students aware of the latest scientific developments around the world.

Initially, the British did not try to change the existing system of education. But, in the early nineteenth century, Christian missionaries, Indians influenced by Western liberal ideas, and the British government began to encourage the spread of Western education among the Indians.

The Christian missionaries believed that the spread of Western education in India would help them win converts. So, they established educational institutions attached to their churches, mainly in Madras, Bombay and Calcutta.

The Indians with liberal ideas wanted to remove social evils by promoting Western education. The British government decided to introduce Western education in India when it realised that employing educated Indians in public offices would reduce administrative costs and ensure the loyalty of the Indians.

In 1835, Governor-General Lord William Bentinck formally introduced English education in India. In 1844, English was made the official language. This made the knowledge of English necessary for appointment to public offices.

In 1854, an official report known as Wood’s Dispatch recommended the establishment of a graded system of English-medium schools, colleges and universities. A department of education and institutions for training teachers were also set up.

The universities of Madras, Bombay and Calcutta were set up in 1857, followed by the universities of Allahabad and Lahore in 1887. Technical education for Indians was, however, neglected. The engineering college at Roorkee, for instance, was open to Europeans only. Thus, the new education system did not wholly benefit the Indians.

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In the eighteenth century, the transport and communication system in India was rather poor. Bullock-carts plying on poor-quality roads and boats plying on rivers were the chief means of transport. In the nineteenth century, the British built a network of sturdy roads in India. They also dug canals and introduced steamships. Above all, they introduced railways in India. All this was done to improve the transportation of raw materials to the ports and imported goods to the Indian markets.

Lord Dalhousie rebuilt a part of the ancient road connecting Sonargaon in Bangladesh to Peshawar in Pakistan. This road is known as the Grand Trunk Road. Dalhousie also inaugurated the first Indian railway line, between Bombay and Thane, in 1853.

The railways not only ensured the quicker movement of goods, but also ensured the quick movement of British troops from one part of India to another. To improve communication, Dalhousie established the Post and Telegraph Department.

He introduced a half-anna postage stamp for a letter to be carried from one part of the country to another. These changes helped the British to strengthen their administrative control over India. However, in the long run, these changes also brought Indians from all over the country closer to each other.

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Equality before the law:

The British introduced uniform laws in all the Indian territories under their direct control. These laws were written down in the form of a code. They applied to all without any discrimination, at least in principle. Thus, they denied traditional social privileges to the upper castes and helped reduce caste discrimination in Indian society. The British, however, practised racial discrimination. Indians were not permitted to use public utilities and services meant for the whites.

Improved social interaction:

The British introduced new systems of mass transport, like railways, in which people of different castes had to travel together. This forced people of different castes to interact and mix with each other. The British also improved the communication system, which resulted in greater interaction among people living in different parts of India.

The schools and colleges set up by the British for spreading Western education were open to all sections of the society. Indians speaking different languages learnt English in these institutions and used it to communicate with each other. Western education also introduced Indians to modern liberal ideas. This led to social reform movements, and later aroused national pride among the Indians.

Emergence of new professional class:

British rule opened up new employment opportunities in administrative offices, business houses, law courts, workshops and educational institutions. This led to the emergence of a class of professionals such as clerks, merchants, lawyers, teachers and industrial workers. Entry into such professions was not based on caste or social status but on educational qualification and specific skills.

Movements and legislations for social reform In the early nineteenth century, enlightened Indians started reform movements against social evils such as cruelty towards women and discrimination against the lower castes. Responding to these movements, Lord William Bentinck abolished sati in 1829 and Lord Dalhousie legalised widow remarriage in 1856.

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Rediscovery of India’s past:

When the English East India Company’s rule in India began, the Company’s servants were unfamiliar with the laws and customs of India. To make them familiar with the existing Muslim and Hindu laws, Warren Hastings established the Calcutta Madarsa in 1781 and Jonathan Duncan set up the Sanskrit College at Varanasi in 1792.

Towards the end of the eighteenth century, European scholars began to take a keen interest in the study of India’s rich culture. They translated works of ancient Indian literature and made valuable contributions in the field of Indian archaeological studies.

William Jones

William Jones founded the Asiatic Society of Bengal (1784) and translated Kalidasa’s play Abhijnanashakuntala. Charles Wilkins translated the Bhagwadgita. Max Mueller, a German scholar, translated the Rigveda and parts of the Upanishads. James Prinsep deciphered the Brahmi script of Ashoka’s time (1837) and Alexander Cunningham carried out archaeological excavations at various places including Sarnath and Sanchi.

Indian reformers encouraged fellow Indians to take interest in India’s glorious past. Their efforts gave rise to a sense of cultural unity and pride among the people. This led to a cultural awakening in India in the late nineteenth century.

New trends in literature:

In the second half of the nineteenth century, Western influence on Indian literature became prominent. The authors of the period started writing on humanistic issues such as social problems, unlike earlier authors, who wrote on religion, mythology and the lives of rulers. New styles of prose and verse were introduced, and simple language was used. Dramas, short stories and novels became very popular.

Many works based on patriotic themes were produced. Dinabandhu Mitra wrote the play Neel Darpan, describing the suffering of indigo cultivators under British plantation owners. Bankim Chandra Chatterji wrote the famous novel Anandmath, which contains the national song Vande Mataram. Muhammad Iqbal wrote the national song Saare Jahan Se Achchha. Such works aroused national pride among the Indians.

Among the famous Indian authors of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century’s were Rabindranath Tagore, Premchand and Subramania Bharati. Tagore won the Nobel Prize for his work Gitanjali, Song Offerings.

New trends in art Indian artists began to blend Western techniques of painting with traditional Indian techniques. They also began to use canvas, watercolours and oil paints. They chose themes based on everyday life, Indian mythology and nature.

The Bengal school of art, which developed in the early twentieth century, was influenced by Indian folk art, the Ajanta cave paintings and the Mughal miniatures. It made a significant contribution to painting.

Short Notes about the Rise of the Peshwas

Balaji Vishwanath divided the Maratha territories among chiefs who were given the task of collecting revenue. The chiefs were allowed to keep a part of the collection to meet their expenses. This made them powerful and ambitious.

Baji Rao I succeeded his father, Balaji Vishwanath, in 1720. Through a treaty, he made peace between the Marathas of Satara and those of Kolhapur.

The Maratha kingdom expanded under Baji Rao I. However, this expansion was mainly carried out by the personal armies of the Maratha chiefs and not by the peshwa’s troops. By 1737, Maratha influence extended over Malwa, Gujarat, Bundelkhand and the outskirts of Delhi. Some of the chiefs like Sindhia in Gwalior, Bhonsle in Nagpur, Gaekwad in Baroda and Holkar in Indore became almost independent of the peshwa’s control.

Baji Rao I captured Salsette and Bassein on the Konkan Coast from the Portuguese. He, however, paid little attention to the administration of the newly acquired territories.

Balaji Baji Rao (Nana Saheb) succeeded his father, Baji Rao I, in 1740. After Shahu’s death in 1749, the peshwa shifted the Maratha capital to Pune, while Shahu’s successor remained at Satara.

Under Balaji Baji Rao the Marathas established their influence over the Carnatic. They won vast territories from the Nizam of Hyderabad and from the rulers of Mysore. They also brought Malwa and large parts of Bundelkhand under their direct control.

They angered the Jats, the Rohillas of Rohilkhand and the Nawab of Awadh by raiding their territories and forcing them to pay tribute. In 1751, the Marathas forced the Nawab of Bengal to cede Orissa and pay tribute.

In 1757, the Marathas helped the Mughal Emperor by removing the agent posted in Delhi by Ahmad Shah Abdali. In 1758, they took Sirhind and Lahore from the Afghans. All this made a war between the Marathas and the Afghans inevitable.

Short Paragraph for Kids about Swami Dayanand Saraswati

Dayanand popularised the slogan “Go back to the Vedas”. He began the Shuddhi Movement to reconvert Hindus who had converted to other religions. He published his writings mostly in Hindi so as to reach out to the common people. In 1877,

Satyarth Prakash, containing the essence of his teachings, was published in Varanasi. Dayanand Saraswati died in 1883.

In 1886, Dayanand’s followers, led by Lala Hansraj, established the Dayanand Anglo-Vedic (DAV) School at Lahore. Soon, a number of DAV schools and colleges were set up at various places. The education imparted at these institutions combined traditional Indian learning with Western scientific studies.

However, differences over the education policy caused a split in the Arya Samaj. In 1902, the more orthodox members established a gurukul at Haridwar, modelled on the gurukuls of the Vedic period.

Reasons for the Decline of the Mughal Empire – Brief Notes

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Aurangzeb reversed Akbar’s policies of diplomacy and religious tolerance. He reimposed the jaziya and permitted the destruction of temples. His revenue collectors oppressed the peasants. These factors led to revolts such as those of the Jats, the Bundelas, the Satnamis and the Sikhs, which greatly weakened the empire. Aurangzeb also lost the loyalty of the Rajputs by interfering in their internal matters.

During his long absence from North India (1681-1707), Aurangzeb became involved in the affairs of the Deccan and neglected the administration of his empire. This allowed the ambitious nobles to become powerful.

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After Aurangzeb’s death, the three main groups of nobles—the Turanis of Afghanistan, the Iranis of Persia and the Hindustanis of India—assumed the role of kingmakers. They hatched conspiracies to depose kings and raise rival candidates to the throne. The frequent change of rulers caused political instability. This allowed provinces to break away and also attracted foreign invasions.

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Aurangzeb’s successors, called the Later Mughals, ruled for 150 years (1707-1857). Important among them were Bahadur Shah I, Jahandar Shah, Farrukhsiyar and Muhammad Shah. The Later Mughals were not as capable as the Great Mughals, and the intrigues of their nobles made it all the more difficult for them to rule efficiently. Under them the Mughal Empire broke up, and Mughal rule ultimately ended in 1857.

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During Muhammad Shah’s reign, some ambitious nobles established states that were virtually free from Mughal control. Some of these states were economically and culturally prosperous, and had strong armies. However, they failed to unite against invaders.

Bengal:

Murshid quli had been made the governor of Bengal in 1717, became almost independent. He and his successors reorganised the administration of Bengal, and promoted agriculture and trade. Under them, Bengal became a prosperous state. They, however, neglected the army and navy and failed to check corruption among their officials.

Awadh:

The state of Awadh became more or less independent under Saadat Khan, who became its governor around 1724. Saadat Khan and his successors introduced many administrative reforms, raised a strong army and improved the economic condition of Awadh. The ‘Lucknavi culture’ developed under them and Lucknow became a centre of art and literature. A new form of architecture based on the Mughal style developed, which is best represented in the Imambara at Lucknow.

Hyderabad:

In 1724, Chin Quilich Khan, better known as the Nizam-ul-Mulk, forced Muhammad Shah to give him the title Asaf Jah and recognise him as the governor of the Deccan. Thereafter, he became virtually an independent ruler and established the state of Hyderabad. He crushed the rebellious
chiefs, and the state of Hyderabad progressed under his administration.

Jaipur:

The Rajput state of Amber (later Jaipur) rose to prominence under Sawai Raja Jai Singh. Jai Singh founded the city of Jaipur and made it a centre of art and scientific learning. He was deeply interested in astronomy and built observatories at Delhi, Jaipur, Ujjain, Varanasi and Mathura.

Bharatpur and Rohilkhand:

The Jats of the regions around Delhi, Agra and Mathura established the state of Bharatpur, while the Rohilla Afghans formed the state of Rohilkhand covering the territories of Moradabad, Bijnore and Bareilly in Uttar Pradesh.

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Taking advantage of the unstable political situation in India, the Persian ruler Nadir Shah invaded India. He defeated the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah at Karnal in 1739. Muhammad Shah was restored to his throne only after he ceded (gave up) all the territories west of the Indus. Afghanistan thus went permanently out of the control of the Mughals.

Nadir Shah carried away enormous wealth, including the Kohinoor diamond and Shah Jahan’s jewel-studded Peacock Throne. Nadir Shah’s invasion exposed the weakness of the Mughals.

After this invasion, the Marathas expanded northwards and threatened Mughal authority.

Between 1748 and 1761, the Afghan ruler Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded India several times. In 1761, Ahmad Shah Abdali inflicted a crushing defeat on the Marathas in the third battle of Panipat. This destroyed the possibility of the Marathas replacing the Mughals as the supreme power in India. This event also cleared the way for the British to emerge as a political force in India.

World as a Global Community – Essay

It enables countries to work together to fight deadly diseases, cope with disasters, protect the environment, increase food production, and so on. A cultural exchange among nations helps the peoples of the world to understand one another’s cultures and maintain friendly relations.

As nations are interdependent, a political, social or economic development in one country often has impacts on other countries. This may not always be an advantage, especially if the impacts are produced by developments such as wars, epidemics, and so on.

Sharing of goods and services:

In modern times, transport and communication systems have improved vastly. Thus, goods, services, information, money and people can move swiftly from one part of the world to another.

Many of the things that we use in our everyday life come from other countries. We can also quite easily travel to other countries to study, work, meet people or see new places.

Professionals like doctors, engineers, scientists and artists across the globe can thus travel to any country to offer their services. They can also share information to improve their skills.

We can access the Internet from any part of the world to get information, exchange e-mail and even do business. All this allows goods, services, information and ideas to be shared by people around the world.

Goods and services are also shared by way of aid. For instance, during severe earthquakes, floods, epidemics, major accidents, and so on, countries share available supplies, technical know-how and trained personnel with the affected countries to help them cope with the effects.

India has a good communication network, which helps in the exchange of goods, services, personnel and information between India and other countries.

Trade:

Trade involves buying, selling or exchange of resources and manufactured goods between countries or people. Countries have been trading with each other since ancient times. As natural resources are unevenly distributed over the world, a country usually has an excess, or surplus, of some resources and a shortage of others.

A country sells its surplus resources to countries that need them. It meets its own shortages by buying from countries that have enough to sell. A country also sells goods that it produces in excess and buys goods that it needs to meet the demands of its people.

India sells iron ore, manganese, cotton textiles, coir and jute products, etc., to other countries and buys machines, defence equipment, crude oil, chemical products, etc.

Nowadays, there is also trade in technical know-how. Countries sell know-how to less advanced countries and buy from more advanced ones. This allows the benefits of technological advances to spread across the world.

Foreign trade plays an important role in the economic development of a nation. Most countries of the world are now independent and can pursue foreign policies that best serve their economic interests.

Today, like never before, foreign trade is regulated by international rules. However, the advanced countries usually dictate the terms of trade. This often places less advanced countries at a disadvantage.

Countries sometimes work together in groups and form organisations to secure favourable terms of trade. For instance, the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was set up to coordinate petroleum production and export by its members.

Short Notes for Kids about Carnatic Wars

British and French involvement in the local politics of Hyderabad and the Carnatic caused the Second Carnatic War (1748-1754). The Carnatic, with its capital at Arcot, was a province under the Nizam of Hyderabad. However, the Nawab of Arcot was almost free from the Nizam’s control.

The death of the Nawab of Arcot and of the Nizam a few years later led to wars of succession in the Carnatic and in Hyderabad. The French and the English took opposite sides in these wars. The British succeeded in installing their candidate on the throne of Arcot, while the French installed their candidate at Hyderabad.

The Third Carnatic War (1756-1763) was a result of the outbreak of the Seven Years’ War in Europe.

Just after the Third Carnatic War began, the British made substantial gains in Bengal and Hyderabad. These gains helped them to defeat the French at Wandiwash in 1760. The French lost all their Indian possessions.

These were restored to them by the Treaty of Paris (1763), which ended the Seven Years’ War. However, the French lost the right to fortify their Indian settlements. Hence, they ceased to be a political force in India.

Short Essay for Kids about Raja Ram Mohan Roy

As a social reformer:

In 1828, Ram Mohan Roy founded the Brahmo Sabha (later called the Brahmo Samaj) to campaign against social evils such as sati,polygamy, child marriage, female infanticide and caste discrimination, and to demand the right of inheritance of property for women. The Samaj’s campaign against sati won the support of Governor-General William Bentinck, who made the practice illegal in 1829.

As an educationist:

Ram Mohan Roy has often been called the ‘Father of Modern India’. He dreamed of bringing together the positive aspects of Eastern and Western cultures. Hence, he supported the introduction of English education in India.

Along with the Scottish scholar David Hare and the Scottish missionary Alexander Duff, he established the Hindu College at Calcutta in 1817. In 1825, he founded the Vedanta College, which offered courses that combined traditional Indian learning with Western scientific studies.

As a journalist:

Rammohun Roy published many journals such as the Samvad Kaumudi to educate the public on issues like freedom of the press, appointment of Indians to high posts, and so on.

Brief Notes about the Activities of SAARC and India’s Role in SAARC

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ii. The SAARC Audio-Visual Exchange (SAVE) was established to provide regular information about the SAARC countries through broadcasts on TV and radio.

iii. Since 1984, the SAARC has organised the South Asian Federation Games (SAF Games) at venues within the member countries. By organising these games the SAARC aims to strengthen friendly relations among its members.

iv. The SAARC fights poverty and hunger. It has established a fund, called the South Asian Development Fund (SADF), to pay for development projects in the member countries. It has also established a security reserve of foodgrains to meet emergencies in member countries.

v. The SAARC countries have agreed to cooperate with each other to suppress terrorism and drug trafficking.

vi. In 2004, the SAARC countries signed a social charter to address issues such as population control, empowerment of women, development of human resources, improvement of health and nutrition, protection of children, etc.

in SAARC

India is the largest, most populous as well as the most advanced among the SAARC countries. This gives India much greater importance than the other SAARC members. The manner in which India has fought the effects of colonial exploitation and India’s success as a stable democracy after independence serves as models for other SAARC countries.

As the most important member of the SAARC, India has taken the initiative in promoting the economic progress of its neighbours. India is the largest contributor to the SAARC’s food security reserve and has offered to contribute to projects for poverty alleviation in SAARC countries.

India also proposed the creation of an infrastructure fund for improving roads, railways, waterways, ports and cross-border communication in the SAARC countries.

India hosted the Second SAARC Summit at Bangalore in 1986 and the Eighth SAARC Summit at New Delhi in 1995. India also hosted the 1987 SAF Games, held at Kolkata, and the 1995 SAF Games, held at Chennai. Besides, India hosted the first cultural festival of SAARC countries, held in 1992, and the first SAARC trade fair, held in 1996.